Article 2560, paragraph 2, of the Italian Civil Code sets forth a specific regulation of the trade debts in the context of the transfer of a going concern. Such provision of law seems apparently clear. However, case law and the scholars show that its actual applicability has raised several issues over the years. This paper examines some of these issues, especially focusing on the interpretation followed by the majority of case law, with the specific aim to give, once for all, some guidelines to the practitioners.

The “Social Enterprise” is a new way of doing enterprise, which, as pointed out by the European Union, can drive a material change in the economic model which shapes the common market. After a first disappointing attempt of 2006, Italian legislature, with Legislative Decree July 3, 2017, no. 112, has adopted a new regulation of the “Social Enterprise” (i.e. “Impresa Sociale” in Italian language). The aim of the new regulation is to overcome the shortcomings of the old one adopted in 2006. More in detail, Legislative Decree July 3, 2017, no. 112 provides for a less strict distribution constraint and certain tax benefits. The Author gives a first overview of the new regulation, also explaining the development of the Social Enterprise in the wider context of the third sector.

Le “Dichiarazioni e Garanzie” sono il corrispondente italiano delle “Representations and Warranties” statunitensi. Appare immediatamente che la terminologia utilizzata in Italia (“Dichiarazioni e Garanzie”) derivi dalla traduzione “letterale” dei termini statunitensi (“Representations and Warranties”). Alla traduzione letterale, tuttavia, non ha fatto seguito una corretta traduzione “giuridica” dell’istituto. Di conseguenza, nonostante molti anni di pratica, le “Dichiarazioni e Garanzie” rappresentano uno dei temi più dibattuti nel contesto delle operazioni di “M&A”.